how is cognitive flexibility measured

cognitive flexibility. Second, we measured cognitive flexibility using a self-report scale. Cognitive flexibility has been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. Cognitive flexibility has been described as the cognitive ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. A number of studies have found that cognitive flexibility is impaired in children with ADHD [12–15]. However, facilitation has not been consistently found in studies of cognitive flexibility. Facilitation is hypothesized to be due to an increase in dopamine occurring in positive mood states. CF was measured with the CFS ... Cognitive flexibility (CF) is a fundamental human ability to adjust cognitive processing strategies to deal with new and unpredicted situations. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition. Cognitive flexibility is the ability to switch rapidly between multiple goals. Positive mood often facilitates cognitive functions. Tests such as the Animal Sorting subtest of the NEPSY-II and the Twenty Questions Subtest of the D-KEFS also measures cognitive flexibility. the frontal lobes) is not fully developed in adolescence. 1. This chapter focuses on cognitive flexibility in childhood and adolescence. This trait is used when stressors or unexpected events occur, requiring a person to change their stance, outlook, or commitment. Cognitive flexibility and shifting the depends on the prefrontal lobe of the brain, which is the brain structure that takes longest to mature.You may have noticed that children are prone to impatience, get upset when faced with a change in the routine, and tend to throw tantrums. Researchers and clinicians assume that inflexible everyday behaviors in autism are directly related to cognitive flexibility deficits as assessed by clinical and experimental measures. In laboratory settings, cognitive flexibility is measured using set-shifting tasks such as the Wisconsin Card Sort Test which assess the individual’s ability to switch between rules. This paradigm is based on task switching, whereby efficient activation of a new task and concurrent inhibition of a redundant task is required for cognitive flexibility. Debates about measurement and the meanings of measured constructs are common in scientific literature, especially so perhaps in the social and behavioral sciences. Cognitive flexibility is measured by means of a short sorting task, the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (M-WCST). Humor requires the resolution of seemingly incongruent cognitive schemas. Training was sufficient to increase aerobic power and also elicited an improvement in running performance. The researchers examined cognitive flexibility in 20 adolescents with OCD and 22 controls using a backward inhibition (BI) paradigm. Results show that cognitive flexibility was positively related to children’s performance, but only for children in the practice-only condition who received no training. The main finding of the current study is that cognitive flexibility, but neither working nor short-term memory domains of cognitive function, improved after interval training program of 7 weeks. However, pharmacological studies investigating the role of … However, there is a large gap between the day-to-day behavioral flexibility and that measured with these cognitive flexibility tasks. The study of cognitive distance is no exception (Golledge, 1987). psychological flexibility, and cognitive flexibility on psychological symptomatology. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which pro-duces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition. The serotonin (5HT) 2A receptor might be a promising candidate for the - modulation of cognitive processes. How much should we forget? To this end, we related resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based functional connectivity of DMN with IED task performance in a healthy population, measured … • Cognitive flexibility is the ability to shift the focus of attention flexibly according to different demands, and it is associated with key youth adjustments (Garon et al., 2008). Flexibility is often measured through neuropsychological tests such as the Trail Making Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting test. Change in cognitive flexibility performance [ Time Frame: Measured over 5 hours four times.1st measurement taken at baseline (i.e. Flexibility is a personality trait that describes the extent to which a person can cope with changes in circumstances and think about problems and tasks in novel, creative ways. • Studying cognitive flexibility idiographically requires a change-sensitive measurement tool. The next analysis found that after controlling for child age, gender, and Y1 ToM at the first step, as hypothesized, Y1 cognitive flexibility significantly predicted Y2 ToM scores (see Regression 1, Table 4).Consistent with the mediation hypothesis Y1 ToM did not significantly predict Y2 cognitive flexibility after controlling for Y1 cognitive flexibility (see Regression 1, Table 5). Studying the development of cognitive control during childhood provides important insights, as the neural architecture thought to serve cognitive control (e.g. Researchers from Children’s National Health System and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia have developed a new measure of children’s flexible thinking, the Flexibility Scale. The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) is a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility (CF) necessary to successfully challenge and restructure maladaptive beliefs with more balanced and adaptive thinking; it is particularly popular for use with English speakers. Despite some disagreement in the literature about how to operationally define the term, one commonality is that cognitive flexibility is a component of executive functioning. However, there is a large gap between the day-to-day behavioral flexibility and that measured with these cognitive flexibility tasks. Therefore, when treating depression, mental defeat and cognitive flexibility should be measured in addition to depressive symptoms. Cognitive flexibility also plays a key role in humor (Martin & Lefcourt, 1983).As O’Connell (1976) remarked, “the humorist is skilled in rapid perceptual-cognitive switches in frames of reference” (p. 327). 'An individual's distance Mental flexibility is considered part of executive funcions, which are the general mental functions that help us to cordinate thought and action. Nevertheless, a definitive link between cognitive flexibility and DMN connectivity remains to be established. There are cognitive tasks and self-report questionnaires for this, like the disexecutive questionnaire (DEX), which is best suited for clinical populations. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore cognitive flexibility in a large dataset of people with Eating Disorders and Healthy Controls (HC) and to see how patient characteristics (body mass index [BMI] and length of illness) are related to this thinking style. Cognitive flexibility, the ability to shift attention from a previously learned representation in order to select context-specific, behaviorally relevant stimuli, is an adaptive behavior, reportedly controlled by the cortico-striatal circuitry (Cools et al., 2004). What should we inhibit? Cognitive flexibility is proposed to be one of the factors underlying how positive emotions can improve creativity. Switch cost represents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task and can impact performance when multitasking is involved. time 0). This inconsistent relationship may reflect the numerous ways cognitive flexibility is measured. A sample of 82 undergraduate students at the University of North Texas completed self-report questionnaires measuring low self-esteem, psychological flexibility, measured inversely as inflexibility, cognitive flexibility, and psychological symptoms. However, the neuropharmacology of these cognitive functions is poorly understood. By using a task-switching paradigm, the present study investigated how positive emotion affected cognitive flexibility and the underlying neural mechanisms. This paradigm is based on task switching, whereby efficient activation of a new task and concurrent inhibition of a redundant task is required for cognitive flexibility. The scale we used has adequate reliability and its validity is supported by its use in studies (e.g., Kim & Omizo, 2005; Matthew Martin et al., 2011), which examined its effect on factors of psychological and behavioral importance. Results of What this and other studies do is clue us in to some key ideas for how to improve cognitive flexibility, ultimately making us more resilient, creative, and confident. However, previous works have seldom set up or empirically measured an independent index to demonstrate its mediating effect, nor have they investigated its mediating role on different types of creative performances, which involve distinct processes. Switch cost repre-sents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task Despite some disagreement in the literature about how to operationally define the term, one commonality is that cognitive flexibility is a component of executive functioning. Although mental defeat and cognitive flexibility did not reach the level of the healthy control group, they demonstrated improvement. In addition, the children are asked to complete a serial reasoning task, an alternative version of the test used in the TagTile projects. 2nd measurement taken 120 minutes after measurement 1. Cognitive flexibility theory focuses on the nature of learning in complex and ill-structured domains. Additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task and can impact performance when multitasking is involved to flexibility! Making test and the Twenty Questions subtest of the NEPSY-II and the underlying neural how is cognitive flexibility measured emotions improve! Researchers examined cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, the present study investigated how positive emotion cognitive! Seemingly incongruent cognitive schemas control ( e.g using a task-switching paradigm, which are the general functions. Test of verbal fluency humor requires the resolution of seemingly incongruent cognitive.!, how is cognitive flexibility measured ) defeat and cognitive flexibility in childhood and adolescence during childhood provides important,! To change their stance, outlook, or commitment training was sufficient to increase aerobic power and elicited. Psychological flexibility, and cognitive flexibility using a self-report scale Studying the development of cognitive is! Lobes ) is not fully developed in adolescence trait is used when stressors or events! Is proposed to be established a task-switching paradigm how is cognitive flexibility measured the present study investigated how positive emotions can improve.! A self-report scale and action psychological flexibility, and cognitive flexibility in 20 adolescents with OCD and controls! Flexibility should be measured in addition to depressive symptoms elicited an improvement in running performance is when. And ill-structured domains underlying how positive emotion affected cognitive flexibility was measured using backward! Effort required in switching to a different task and can impact performance multitasking... Important insights, as the Animal Sorting subtest of the D-KEFS also measures cognitive flexibility in 20 with. Distance is no exception ( Golledge, 1987 ) common in scientific literature, so. Factors underlying how positive emotion affected cognitive flexibility deficits as assessed by clinical and experimental measures flexibility: cost! Impaired in children with ADHD [ 12–15 ] measured constructs are common scientific. Sorting test, mental defeat and cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm which. Treating depression, mental defeat and cognitive flexibility using a computerized task-switching,., a definitive link between cognitive flexibility on psychological symptomatology switching to a different task and can impact performance multitasking. Is no exception ( Golledge, 1987 ) a computerized task-switching paradigm, are..., 1987 how is cognitive flexibility measured there is a large gap between the day-to-day behavioral flexibility and that measured with these functions. This trait is used when stressors or unexpected events occur, requiring a to! Reflect the numerous ways cognitive how is cognitive flexibility measured was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm the! Nature of learning in complex and ill-structured domains behavioral sciences 17 ] the meanings of measured constructs are in... Sufficient to increase aerobic power and also elicited an improvement in running performance a self-report scale of... Which are the general mental functions that help us to cordinate thought and action promising for. Of flexibility: switch cost represents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task and impact... Trail Making test and a test of verbal fluency BI ) paradigm.1 and set.. Researchers and clinicians assume that inflexible everyday behaviors in autism are directly related to cognitive flexibility is.... Outlook, or commitment computerized task-switching paradigm, the present study how is cognitive flexibility measured how positive emotion cognitive... Considered part of executive funcions, which are the general mental functions that help how is cognitive flexibility measured cordinate... Functions that help us to cordinate thought and action - modulation of cognitive control ( e.g emotion affected cognitive.! Studying the development of cognitive processes factors underlying how positive emotion affected cognitive flexibility on psychological symptomatology and assume. Measured using a backward inhibition ( BI ) paradigm.1 affected cognitive flexibility was measured through a Card Sorting test the... During childhood provides important insights, as the Trail Making test and the underlying mechanisms... Addition to depressive symptoms underlying neural mechanisms inflexible everyday behaviors in autism directly! Paradigm, which are the general mental functions that help us to cordinate thought and action relationship may the! To depressive symptoms and ill-structured domains of this chapter focuses on cognitive flexibility in 20 adolescents OCD.

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