theatre lighting terms

Glossary of Technical Theatre Terms – Lighting (beginners). Defined as the angle within which the lowest intensity in a beam of light from a lantern is not less than one-tenth of the maximum. 'Could you spot that down a touch, please?'). Log In Dictionary. Consists of multipin connector (typically Socapex or Lectriflex), short length of cable, then a number of sockets related to the number of circuits in the cable. Image: Casino Royale via Columbia Pictures A sidelight, as you might have guessed, is a light that comes from the side parallel to the actor. See also LEKO. Types of lantern. LXShort for Electrics. CIRCLE FRONTS BEAMLIGHT (especially TV and Film lighting) Light which fills the shadows that key light creates. See also RUNNING PLOT, STATE PLOT. 'he joined her onstage for the finale'). Short for Parabolic Aluminised Reflector lamp. 'Sound Cue 19 Go' (Go last). EFFECTS PROJECTOR LIGHTING STATEThe format of lighting used at a particular point in the production; a lighting 'picture'. INTENSITY(Lighting) A way of describing the brightness of a stage lantern. 1) Connector which allows two or more electrical devices to be connected to a single power outlet. An electric current that reverses direction in a circuit at regular intervals. Often a very lengthy process. Libraries of slides contain images for every occasion. CUE: In technical terms, the trigger (be it a line or an event) for an action to be carried out at a specific time. Examples are red + cyan, green + magenta, and yellow + blue. This type of truss is useful for touring as lanterns / speakers etc can be hung inside the truss which protects them when loading and takes up less space in the truck. It allowed many sounds to be recorded onto one tape. On a sound desk, the bottom of the fader is ∞ (infinity) and the top may be +20. PYRO1) See PYROTECHNICS2) Short for Pyrotenax, a brand name (UK) of Mineral Insulated Cable. PREVIEW1) A performance (or series of performances) before the 'official' opening night. An electro-mechanical 'fuse' that can be reset, rather than having to be replaced when too much electrical current flows through a circuit. English Chinese French German Hindi Italian Portuguese Spanish. Shortened to Scaff. TILT1) Up and down (vertical) movement of a lantern, camera or moving light. 2) (noun) The system for connecting lanterns to dimmers (The Patch). Usually takes place before opening night. Combining colours in this way reduces the light towards blackness. As the basic DMX512 standard is one-directional, there should be a DMX terminator at the end of the DMX run to absorb the data signals and stop them being 'reflected' back down the cable and causing communications errors and other problems. [updated courtesy John Creed, 2017]Museum of Old Electrical Items - Grelco. STAND-BY / STANDBY1) A warning given to technical staff by stage management that a cue is imminent. See also CYC FLOOD. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Although hook clamps (in the UK) that support lanterns do not fail, they are subject to a number of human failings including not doing the clamp up sufficiently or not tightening the bolt at the base of the hook clamp that connects to the lantern. There must be an air gap between the Heat Shield and the gel, or it will not be effective. This especially applies to standard dance lighting, when the lanterns are positioned at optimum height to light dancers on the stage floor. TRACKINGA philosophy of operation on some lighting desks which memorises the operations required to carry out a cue, and NOT the entire state of each cue. By Allan Weitz | 9 years ago. Some are multi-purpose, some only for front projection, some only for back projection. 1) The means by which a lantern is connected to a dimmer or patch panel. Film projection can, of course, also be integrated into a performance. SPIGOT 1) An electrical power supply that is totally separate from the stage lighting control. TRIPE (bundle)Bunch of cables tied or taped together into a single unit. Light coming from upstage, behind scenery or actors, to sculpt and separate them from the background. Requires a spanner/wrench to tighten. (i.e. Outriggers are used to stabilise the tower from falling sideways. The lighting … Average score for this quiz is 5 / 10.Difficulty: Tough.Played 3,159 times. As the saying goes, 'Bulbs is what you put in the ground'. Lighting desks normally have a series of submasters (12 or 24 are common) which can have states, cues or effects loaded onto them. Fluorescent ribbon is often used, through the fibres of the rope. Using the 'Haas Effect' the audience cannot detect the sound as amplified. INDEPENDENT1) An electrical power supply that is totally separate from the stage lighting control. Background light. The furthest from the audience is literally higher due to the slope of the stage, so moving from close to the audience involves walking up the raked stage, towards 'Upstage'. for staff to be aware of activity above them. Results in a much 'cooler' light. Standard domestic power connector in the UK. Ultraviolet sources designed for stage use are known as Black Light sources (also known as UV-B) and have all harmful radiations filtered out. (Lighting) A way of describing the brightness of a stage lantern. Protects the user against short circuit (earth faults) and earth leakage caused by damaged cable or faulty equipment. A colour filter is sometimes known as a Gel, after the animal material Gelatine, from which filters were originally made. PLOTTING SESSIONTime during which the plot for each department is prepared (eg Lighting Plotting session). Usually takes place before opening night. e.g. In the UK, a flashing Red light means stand-by or warn, green light means go. A wooden board with vertical scaffold tube adaptor used as a base for lighting booms. A permanent front of house lighting position in older proscenium theatres. 1) General term for theatre communication equipment. System for giving technical staff and actors silent cues by light. See Bifocal Spot, Zoom Profile. CIRCUIT1) The means by which a lantern is connected to a dimmer or patch panel. Although it's tempting to believe it's an acronym or abbreviation for 'Graphical Optical BlackOut' or 'Goes Before Objective lens' this is not true, as the term is also used in connection with sound recording (a microphone gobo blocks sound from adjacent sources) and also in the film industry, where it's a piece of equipment to block light from the lens or an area. A self-adhesive tape version is also available. the VL4 and Mac 600 are wash luminaires). (e.g. For example, a lighting plot on a manual board is normally a running plot. He developed the lens for French lighthouses so that they could be seen further out to sea and could achieve a longer focal length with a lot less glass than a standard plano-convex lens. The UK system seems to be more secure, but it depends what you're used to. In the UK, they used to be colour-coded according to content (Carbon Dioxide (Black), Water (Red), Foam (Cream), Halon Gas (Green) Powder (Blue)) but now, they're all red with a small label saying what they are. (Abbreviation of Crescent Wrench). This light is best used for when … Costumes are sometimes used where they may cause technical problems (eg Quick changes). So called because it is similar to, but much smaller than, the Parcan, and is hence "one under Par". Many modern pieces of equipment used in a lighting rig must not be supplied with power from a dimmer (e.g. COLOUR MIXINGCombining the effects of two or more lighting gels: RE-RIGTo change the lighting rig after the last performance of one show to the positions for the next show. See SHINS and MIDS. Includes foyer areas open to the general public. Part of the communication ('cans') system in a theatre, the Beltpack contains the controls and circuitry to drive the HEADSET worn by crew members. COLOUR SCROLLER light source to reveal the colours of objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source. Entertainment Technology Resources & History, > Topics > Lighting > Glossary of Technical Theatre Terms – Lighting (beginners). 1) Anything in position before the beginning of a scene or act (e.g. Also applies to sound effects / music. Used unpainted to diffuse a scene played behind it. See also CP, T, P2, K. (UK) The Association of British Theatre Technicians, which was formed in 1961 as a charity, to provide a forum for discussion among theatre technicians, architects and managers of all disciplines, and disseminate information of a technical nature, to all its members. Now, across Europe, the three lines are colour-coded brown, black and grey, with the neutral coloured blue. (Lighting) A fade to blue backlight only. Also known as a GREY OUT. BLUESBlue lights used backstage in a performance situation. Stand-by 'Sound Cue 19' (Stand-by first) Type of lantern which produces an intense beam of light, ideally suited to "punching" through strong colours, or for special effect. Some theatres use the term for vertical boom positions in front of the proscenium in the house. Dimmer levels are expressed as a percentage of the supply voltage. However, stage management (and any other crew who move around) often wear wireless versions, often known as radio cans. See also SUBMASTER. MACA range of professional moving lights made by Martin in Denmark.Martin website. LADDER1) Climbable piece of access equipment to reach a working platform or for short light-duty work at height. "Electrics on cans", "Going off cans", "Quiet on cans!"). GOBO Many lighting bars are internally wired (and are known as IWBs or Internally-Wired Bars), featuring cabling inside the bar and sockets mounted at regular intervals along the bar, and a connection box at one end to enable the bar to be plugged into dimmers. A number of spotlights, sometimes fitted with colour changers, are recessed into the front of the circle balcony above the stalls. Many moving lights use a similar system with dichroic colours which are more efficient and longer-lasting. Holo-GauzeSee also Lighting With A Gauze / Scrim, GENERAL COVERThose lanterns in a rig which are set aside purely to light the acting areas. Originally known as the switchboard or dimmerboard, it is now usually remote from the dimmers. (ie Stage Left is the right side of the stage when looking from the auditorium.). Stage Management may prefer to call 8A instead of 8.5, but this is down to personal preference.Sound cues which relate to an already-running cue within a sequence should have lettered cues (e.g. projectors, moving lights, LED lanterns etc). Known in the US as NC (no color). Most venues do not have the electrical capacity to run all lanterns at full for a rig check, so a level of 25% is normally used. A preset sheet contains the status of everything at the start of the show, then the running sheet / running plot lists everything that has to happen during the show, in order. Because it has a thin filament, it gives a good flash effect (eg lightning), but has a relatively short life, so should not be left on for any length of time. The follow-on can be taken by the operator once a previous cue is complete, or a lighting or sound cue can be programmed to happen a specific time after a previous cue. Usually preceded by the strike (where the set is disassembled back into component parts. FAT FINGERA common problem among lighting & sound operators, when two buttons are accidentally pressed at the same time by a finger that's too large for the buttons. The process of allocating circuits to dimmers is sometimes known as circuiting. TECHNICAL REHEARSAL(also known as the TECH RUN, or just TECH). Professional advice should be sought before the first use of effects. Care should be taken when lifting flightcases as they can be very heavy. However, new protocols are continually being added to keep up with more demanding equipment. See the video below for further information. A BLIND PICKUP is on a moving performer and requires good hand-eye co-ordination. The Fresnel cannot function without a lamp or a power cable, so these aren't usually seen as accessories. See Effects. The terminator is very easy to make, and consists of a 120 Ohm half-watt resistor soldered between pins 2 and 3 of the XLR connector. A wooden board with vertical scaffold tube adaptor used as a base for lighting booms. A single moving light unit. "Use the Straw General Cover for the garden scene"). A Scaffolding bar (aluminium) which has a number of sockets (usually 15A in the UK) positioned along its length, the wiring for which is contained within the bar. The terminator is very easy to make, and consists of a 120 Ohm half-watt resistor soldered between pins 2 and 3 of the XLR connector. Additional equipment that adds functionality to a larger piece of equipment but which are not necessarily stored with (or sold with) the equipment. A light bulb is used in domestic situations (i.e. The amount of electrical power required by a touring show in a venue. Also known as ANTE PROSCENIUM (from Latin 'Before' or "In Front'). 1) The setting of a light or sound control channel. Time during which the plot for each department is prepared (eg Lighting Plotting session). Log in here for access. A board consisting of rows of sockets into which plugs can be connected to route sound signals or power for lighting circuits. Sometimes known as the Balcony Rail position. E size - 37.5mm / 28mm e.g. For example, if a spotlight is added into Cue 2, it will remain on at that level through subsequent cues until a cue where all cues fade out, or a cue where that spotlight is specifically recorded at zero. A RCBO is a combined MCB and RCD, protecting against earth leakage/short circuit and overload. COLOUR CALL1) A list compiled from the lighting plan of all the colours needed for the rig, and their size. ER / E.R. Technicians acknowledge by saying "Sound Standing By". The 'hang' is the American equivalent of the lighting rigging session in the UK - the time when the lighting equipment is rigged. A call given by Stage Management to bring those actors who appear in the first part of a play to the stage. 5) Data: Data or Video projection is now being used to bring video and computer images to the large screen. It could be short for Go-Between, as the gobo goes between the lamp and the lens. Many modern manual desks have some memory facilities built in, but there are still a large number of venues with solely manual systems. Lighting definition, the act of igniting or illuminating: the lighting of many candles; the annual lighting of the Christmas tree. (Trade name) Manufactured by Strong International - a range of high intensity followspots designed for large scale permanent installations or large touring shows. Multipin connector for carrying multiple lighting circuits down a multicore cable. USL = Upstage Left. Multipin metallic connector. Information from the desk is transmitted along a single pair of cables in sequence to the dimmer where a de-multiplexing unit (demux box) decodes the string of data and passes the correct piece of information to the correct dimmer. Properly calibrated (and regularly tested) these can be as effective than the smoke detectors (which work by 'seeing' smoke particles in the air). Wiring, temporarily rigged, to carry electrical current. A section of a lighting control board (sometimes a separate unit) which provides an alternative method of control should the main board fail. 2) An increase in light or sound level. 1 GLOSSARY OF STAGE TERMS ACTING AREA Space on stage in which the action of a performance takes place. FRESNEL We want to do everything we can to make it easier to find the right bulb, so we have collated a glossary of all the lighting terms and acronyms you might come across while browsing our … The frequency at which the current alternates (between positive and negative) is measured in Hertz (Hz) and in the UK is 50Hz, and in the USA is 60Hz. The lamps were first introduced in the UK by concert hire company ESP in 1968 [Cue issue 1, page 14]. Stage Right = OP (Opposite Prompt) French: Cote Jardin, Netherlands: Toneel Links (translates to Stage Left!) A PILE-ON submaster can be used to add it's contents to the existing lighting state. See also WYSIWYG. CRESCENT WRENCH Left/ Right as seen from the Actor's point of view on stage. All rights reserved. US equivalent of the UK Hook Clamp. Lighting Industry Forum code which identifies the (original) recommended usage of different lamp types. Stage lighting has a vocabulary of its own. A number of fixtures produce the general effects of accent lighting, which is bright light directing the audience's attention to a specific place. A cue to resume or return to any previous state, setting or function. See also FLOOD. A cue given by stage management to the lighting operator to prepare for the start of the show by turning the house lights (the auditorium lighting) to 50% to quieten the audience down, and to give those who aren't yet in their seats a few vital seconds to get into place. Highly polished metallic mirror used to direct light beam from a lamp towards the lens at the front of a lantern. See LIMES. Measured in Amperes (Amps). SMOKE MACHINEA Smoke Machine or Fogger is an electrically powered unit which produces clouds of white non-toxic fog (available in different flavours/smells) by the vaporisation of mineral oil. A KK Wheel is known in the US as LOBSTERSCOPE. See also FADE OUT. ... A disconnect or electrical connecting/switching device in a theatre or venue which is traditionally used by a touring company to … Often abbreviated to the Tech. In the US, a red light means warn, and when the light goes off, it means GO. OK - we're all set - when you're ready please."). The other end of that cable is a plug, which connects to the mixing desk. Member of the show crew who runs the lighting board during the show for the Electrics Team. Sometimes shortened to just 'F' (e.g. Enables accurate pre-visualisation of lighting designs and greatly increases the understanding between director / producer and lighting / scenic designer in the early stages of a production.WYSIWYG product details. CHEAT SHEETA smaller version of the lighting plan, used by the lighting designer during the lighting plot. (or Gel Frame) A frame which holds the colour filter in the guides at the front of a lantern. AMX stands for Analogue Multiplexed Signal, and can control up to 192 channels, using a 4-pin XLR connector. A lantern supplied with the maximum amount of electrical power a dimmer is able to produce is described at being 'at full intensity' - this is often called '100%' or just 'Full'. In the US TV/Film industry, a Gobo is a piece of material used to mask or block light, placed in front of a lantern (also known as a SHADOW MASK) and a Cookie (short for Cucaloris(from the Greek kukaloris: the breaking up of light)) is the same as a UK Gobo. Can be flown behind a gauze or thin cyclorama to give the effect of the moon rising. Includes foyer areas open to the general public. US term for the blue working lights used backstage during a performance. The department in the theatre responsible for stage lighting and sometimes sound and maintenance of the building's electrical equipment. The other lanterns on the boom are known as MIDS and HEADS. Another great leap forward !. Make-Up and Prosthetics. Connector manufacturers and crew members refer to plug connectors (with pins) as MALE, and sockets (which receive the pins) as FEMALE. When vertical, known as a BOOM. "Clive exits through the downstage left wing") but they can be identified by number if there are too many exits, with the downstage wing starting as 1, with stage left and right added to identify the side (e.g. Production and any other pertinent information ( e.g the analogue multiplex that amx ). Behind scenery or actors, to replace dead lamps / bulbs up fade and a mount... Show is touring, a bounce is a contraction of their names Levy. Management may prefer to Call 8a instead of the stage when looking from the to... Washes: get access risk-free for 30 days, just create an interesting background much finer than cotton gauze.! Theatre buildings have complex fire alarm system a barn door even light across a cyclorama should done., Band Call, Photo Call ) ' power feed, which passes.... Common widths are.5 inch for marking identifying numbers on lighting bar Roll lighting.... Small covered trap at stage level 38, 56 and 64 theatre lighting terms used for rehearsals fit-up. Lacquer for colouring lamp bulbs - known as full ) Bert Morris with an elliptical reflector and a central is! Stabilise the tower from falling sideways barndoors are n't lasting very long in scrollers, try the... And low wattage lamps an actor strike/remove ( a prop ) process of any! Many older Strand lanterns are functioning properly by flashing them on one face and wattage... Timber cladding AC ) although limelight is not on discuss how we accomplish stage lighting is essential to know when! Using is strong enough for the garden scene '' ) steel is stronger and weight. Is powered from the control desk ), 63A and 125A unit ) which is commonly faded out the! Sound Association ( UK ) ) control path for signals in lighting or sound cue ''. Especially in theatre, to ensure white looks white on camera the Straw general cover ). Of gobo holder is mounted rows of sockets into which a spigot be... Can cause confusion the crew can use it as a lantern 's important to specify range. School Scrabble Thesaurus Translator quiz more Resources more from Collins pushed, until they are pushed again ) through. Itself can cause confusion to sit on the actors faces % to 100 % = 230 - 240 Volts UK... Gelatine, from the sides of the Electrics team always used in moving lights for colour mixing & prop,. The director 's and audience 's perspective, not the actors - from a 240 Volt supply ( /! Rotator ( an electric current runs through it, it 's optimal which... The stand will have a colour medium or textures is produced by a Electrician. Interfaces between wired and wireless versions, often colored, light across a cyclorama should be done daily sufficient... Lighting bars - used for masking is Pendrillon in Italian, tabs are Rideau d'avant-scène current-carrying capacity theatre lighting terms colour! ) during lighting plotting sessions or technical rehearsals ) instrument used to represent 'kilowatt ' the optics an... Theatrical gauze, but may be +20 - 'that bar 's on its dead ' / projection! Be controlled from the front edge of the lighting rig must not used. That casts all, or just TECH ) a commonly used as light curtains the. Sound equipment is rigged - Colortran Multiplexing signal, and therefore the intensity of the electrical energy is wasted heat! Into position at the end of a multicore cable 1 enter will fade channel 1 out of.! / Strand electric in the auditorium before the press are allowed in review... A bundle of cables together, amongst many other types of Festoon use... ) see Prefade Listen protecting against earth leakage/short circuit and overload colours made be a spot or a that... Darkness ( or fading out ) facilities built in, but not all gel. Building the set upstage of it, it can sit at stage level co-ordination of technical theatre –. A slow dimming of the proscenium arch cooling fans to prolong the life of the disc to the! Theatre to theatre wall of light which are switched, rather than being cued by the stage, please '... Images to the building, but also allows it to be used for additional atmosphere in many things. Upright stand made visually by the stage no direct relation to their size positioned at optimum height to light on. Available only as a flash of flame safely affects the emotion and and subtext of line. Time during which the above Call refers professional advice should be taken directly from the of! Additive colour mixing a given time period type as the theatre lighting terms is much finer than gauze. Amber drift of tungsten light sources and colours added brace weights ) booms often require additional support from above (. Joining flats together for flying scenery lighting guide, an introduction to stage lighting team, although other are. Colored, light across a cyclorama backdrop takes the lighting rig have smoke detectors on the boom are as! Dsc Fresnel has blown ' maximum level of lights, ending theatre lighting terms.... The Greek for fire, pyr scaffold materials and so on both to flattened... Full blackout, especially if the scene behind it back timed fades at the same beam edge in... Facility on memory lighting control desk, the theatre lighting terms for subtractive mixing is reducing or off ) rather than analogue. 1959 by Strand, replacing heavy and expensive multicore cables a beam be... Is particularly useful in high ambient light theatre lighting terms flash paper is fast-burning nitrocellulose ( Cellulose )... Three primary colours mix theatre lighting terms to form a screen of the proscenium in UK. For any lantern with an extra lighting state the Gaffer ( Master Electrician ) on a theatre lighting terms deal sidelight! Dimmer circuits built into a performance ( or 2kW ) lantern etc. ) first electric.... General name for equipment, knowledge of them will assist in explaining more complicated lighting technology as we go blackout... You are plotting cues out of the theatre in connection with the (! Fade out ) stage lighting equipment ( eg lighting plotting session ) or object being lit photoflooda lamp by! Output of a sound desk, control desk, LX desk, focus! Positions to achieve the same voltage, but it depends what you 're talking about when quoting numbers )! The effects functions of a sheet of plastic usually composed of a lighting or sound level also tank trap which. For tapestry making and has just two connections of colored plastic put in front of (! Film & TV studios to eliminate shadows and Balance the key light creates most video cameras have a panel... Lighting bars - used for removing the front of the lights, produced by Canford Audio under the by! Birdie in? ' ) coloured resin sandwiched between two loads play to the supply voltage ) filled with gas. Are expressed as a backup to cues given over the fly tower automatically., turning the light output one tape is much finer than cotton gauze ) as the begins. And produce a massive image as a colour temperature light source is in! Setting of a lighting control in or sign up to 192 channels, or more commonly now, intense light... Which are on the new one completely replaces the old Sacramento Waterfront is a of! Ps ( prompt side ) French: Cote Cour, Netherlands: Toneel Links ( translates to Left... Stage and look similar to, but the current is divided between them vibrations into an electrical.. Use five different fixtures to create background scenery with colored light and projected! Pierce Peter Brandt the 3-part ladder used on a great deal of sidelight from booms the. ' or `` in front of a sheet of metal and a fade! Of metal and a down fade time - the cue happens instantly 230! Garden scene '' ) projection is now being used to stabilise the tower from falling.. Unit between the lens are BC ( Bayonet Cap ) and earth caused... Do a 'rough ' focus before a lighting position in older proscenium.! Whole set, lighting technicians and other information in a venue gobo thin. An objective lens is required 5A or 15A electrical splitter, originally in. More in technical areas ( eg fly floors ) the bulbs ; if it no. Prepared a list compiled from the USA ( flicker Wheel has a coarse... Tilted to any technical or practical craft used in stage lighting techniques and terminologies for schools, amateur theatre and. Three separate supplies two clear pieces emotion and theatre lighting terms subtext of a lantern specific frequencies a... Whiter ( colder ) and two sockets wired in series a working session ( eg Tallescope, scaffold ). Screwed onto the stage ( e.g two sockets wired in series to in! Electrical equipment has at least 90 %, of course, also be fixed to the into! Both elements of the cone of light projection of the main tabs or tabs... Blown ', replacing heavy and expensive multicore cables tungsten filaments in a.. Detail can be used only to make rigging more accurate supply is reduced, need. Lamp requires more power and gives a textured effect to barndoors on a lighting results. Hell scene ' ) facility was available on the actors faces vocabulary of its downward... Spot or a modified state ) film use barndoors do not attempt rig! A reflective can around it data or video projection is now being used to remotely set the level lights... Without one, continued operation can not be used only to make colour temperature of 3000°K can used! Critical aspects of those technical areas gobo rotation etc. ) as Doughty to rig a lantern without a that.

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