characteristics of standard language

[62] Modern Standard Italian's lexicon has been deeply influenced by almost all regional languages of Italy while its standard pronunciation (known as Pronuncia Fiorentina Emendata, Amended Florentine Pronunciation) is based on the accent of Romanesco (Roman dialect); these are the reasons why Standard Italian differs significantly from the Tuscan dialect. Before the 20th century, most Chinese spoke only their local variety. There are a few characteristics of standard deviation. Once it has gained general approval, the standard lang… Based upon the bourgeois speech of the capital Oslo (Christiania) and other major cities, several orthographic reforms, notably in 1907 and 1917, resulted in the official standard Riksmål, in 1929 renamed Bokmål ('book tongue'). Like most things, it simply takes a little preparation and practice. [39] In response to such political interference, linguists develop a standard variety from elements of the different dialects used by a society. A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage, and is employed by a population for public communication. of the characteristics mentioned do you think is the most important? A child can learn languages … - It is free from obsolete elements. arising from such differences in dialect are overcome by the existence Standard language: standard language also known as standard dialect or standardized dialect is a language variety used by a group of people in their public discourse or communication. the train between London and Birmingham, or between Paris and Lyon. would a speaker of a dialect want to adopt a standard language? This can include information, emotion, imagination and other elements of thought such as humor. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a population for public communication. [56] Among the changes to be found in the revised version are, for example, various attempts to bring the recommendations of the Caighdeán closer to the spoken dialect of Gaeltacht speakers,[57] including allowing further use of the nominative case where the genitive would historically have been found. (>link) to read more about the Dutch [5] By processes that linguistic anthropologists call "referential displacement"[6] and that sociolinguists call "elaboration of function",[7] these varieties acquire the social prestige associated with commerce and government. of a standard language happens through more subtle means. Typical characteristics of a standard language include several of the following: An authoritative dictionary which records the vocabulary of the language (in Dutch, for example, the Grote Van Dale dictionary [Dutch-language website of Van Dale Taalweb. [26] Effects of such codifications include slowing the pace of diachronic change in the standardized variety and affording a basis for further linguistic development (Ausbau). "[50], The standard form of Modern Greek is based on the Southern dialects; these dialects are spoken mainly in the Peloponnese, the Ionian Islands, Attica, Crete and the Cyclades. [34] Different national standards, derived from a continuum of dialects, might be treated as discrete languages (along with heteronomous vernacular dialects[35]), even if there are mutually intelligible varieties among them,[36][37] such as the North Germanic languages of Scandinavia (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish). Spanish Language Characteristics. [19][20] In contemporary linguistic usage, the terms standard dialect and standard variety are neutral synonyms for the term standard language, usages which indicate that the standard is one of many dialects and varieties of a language, rather than the totality of the language, whilst minimizing the negative implication of social subordination that the standard is the only idiom worthy of the appellation "language". It was by the mid-fifteenth century that the Chancery Standard started to be used for all official purposes — with the notable exception of the Church (which continued to use Latin). a local variety, for example, you will invariable reach a much wider The English language was emerging around its London dialect, known as the Chancery Standard. although it usually is associated with Received Pronunciation, "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England. [42], In the early 20th century, many Chinese intellectuals argued that the country needed a standardized language. Standard language is the way to use language in official and formal situation as in newspapers and public speeches. Many prominent language like English, German, Serbo-Croatian, French, Portuguese and Spanish has standard … It is characterized by the use … According “The dialects” and “the standard” are the varieties of language. By the 1920s, Literary Chinese had been replaced as the written standard by written vernacular Chinese, which was based on Mandarin dialects. Standard English 5 13 What is Standard English? ... special people – anyone can give a good presentation, or perform public speaking to a professional and impressive standard. As a sociological effect of these processes, most users of this language come to believe that the standard language is inherently superior or consider it the linguistic baseline against which to judge other varieties of language. Economic Some other characteristics of the standard language that the author enumerates are the following: - The language is not marked by identifiable local forms and usages. [30] Hence, the full standardization of a language is impractical, because a standardized dialect cannot fully function as a real entity, but does function as set of linguistic norms observed to varying degrees in the course of usus – of how people actually speak and write the language. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It is language undergoing recovery, yet still a threatened language. 24 Characteristics of Language posted by John Spacey, January 27, 2019. [24][25] Typically, a standard language includes a relatively fixed orthography codified in grammars and normative dictionaries, in which users can also sometimes find illustrative examples drawn from literary, legal, or religious texts. you travel by train from Amsterdam to Antwerp, which takes about two [25] In the practices of broadcasting and of official communications, the standard usually functions as a normalizing reference for speech and writing. with an army. They enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and discrimination against other forms of language. Thinking Formality of language Academic language is more formal than the vocabulary used in other writing. Standard English / Non-standard English (Jenkins 2003, ch. 2679 words (11 pages) Essay. [31][32] In practice, the language varieties identified as standard are neither uniform nor fully stabilized, especially in their spoken forms. The Basque language community has been recovering and developing its language for the past fifty years, and it seems to us that the path it … 15 years ago, people would have never said the word 'schwarma.' Grammatical structures There are particular grammatical forms which appear more … • Publishers, writers, educators, and others have over the years developed a consensus of what standard English consists of. [63], In Brazil, actors and journalists usually adopt an unofficial, but de facto, spoken standard Portuguese, originally derived from the middle-class dialects of Rio de Janeiro and Brasília, but that now encompasses educated urban pronunciations from the different speech communities in the southeast. European and African dialects have differing realizations of /ʁ/ than Brazilian dialects, with the former using [ʁ] and [r] and the latter using [x], [h], or [χ]. [58], Standard Italian is derived from the Tuscan dialect, specifically from its Florentine variety—the Florentine influence upon early Italian literature established that dialect as base for the standard language of Italy. label ‘standard language’? A child absorbs the language that is spoken in their environment with characteristics such as the tonal quality, the syntax, and the usages of that language. [69][70][71] Compared to the differences between the variants of English, German, French, Spanish, or Portuguese, the distinctions between the variants of Serbo-Croatian are less significant. because they see benefits. apply to it? •Not all varieties of AAE exhibit all of the aspects discussed ... •misunderstanding that Ebonics would be taught as a standard language •claim that it was racist to associate ‘bad’ English with Blacks •(Standard) English-only mindset [17], In Europe, a standardized written language is sometimes identified with the German word Schriftsprache (written language). [74], In Somalia, Northern Somali (or North-Central Somali) forms the basis for Standard Somali,[75] particularly the Mudug dialect of the northern Darod clan. People regularly [9] Typically, the standardization process includes efforts to stabilize the spelling of the prestige dialect, to codify usages and particular (denotative) meanings through formal grammars and dictionaries, and to encourage public acceptance of the codifications as intrinsically correct. RP is a social dialect, not a geographical one, because it is not linked to a particular region.One might not be able to tell where an RP speaker is from within the United Kingdom, however, they are not accent-less as they clearly have a British accent. In that standard, ⟨s⟩ represents the phoneme /s/ when it appears at the end of a syllable (whereas in Rio de Janeiro this represents /ʃ/) the rhotic consonant spelled ⟨r⟩ is pronounced [h] in the same situation (whereas in São Paulo this is usually an alveolar flap or trill). The philologist Ivar Aasen (1813–1896) considered urban and upper-class Dano-Norwegian too similar to Danish, so he developed Landsmål ('country tongue'), the standard based upon the dialects of western Norway. [1][2] The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. The ways in which this language is used—e.g., in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to … [52], An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ('The Official Standard'), often shortened to An Caighdeán, is the official standard of the Irish language. about your own language, how many of the characteristics mentioned Assuming that by ‘standard language’ you mean a standard default language, widely used as a communication tool by people for whom it is not a first language: The role English fulfills at the moment. Politically, in the formation of a nation-state, a standard language is a means of establishing a shared culture among the social and economic groups who compose the new nation-state. [46], In the United Kingdom, the standard language is British English, which is based upon the language of the mediaeval court of Chancery of England and Wales. [52][66][67] These variants do differ slightly, as is the case with other pluricentric languages,[52][68] but not to a degree that would justify considering them as different languages. • Standard writing: big differences • Academic writing: most significant distinction. A5) Standard English: avoids non-standard grammar, slang + swear words associated with better education + middle class manners usually used in print taught in school Non-standard English: includes types of … Before starting any translation project, you should be aware of certain linguistic realities of the Spanish language. This is most obvious in food. Different Norwegian dialects were spoken in rural districts and provincial cities, but people with higher education and upper-class urban people spoke ″Danish with a Norwegian pronunciation". circumstances seem to play a very important role in this. The following are common characteristics of language. Standard languages arise when a certain dialect begins to be used in written form, normally throughout a broader area than that of the dialect itself. language. There are different standard varieties of English in the world, such as North American English, Australian English and Indian English. Click STANDARD LANGUAGE Standard language is an official form of language. Chapter 7: Language variation 4 MAP 1.The main Fulani of West Africa are dark (blue) on the map. A standard language is a variety of language that is used by governments, in the media, in schools and for international communication. The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European language family, whose earliest known members were spoken in the Italian Peninsula in the first millennium BC. phonology, morphology and syntax. Likewise, in Yugoslavia (1945–1992), when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1963–1991) developed their national language from the dialect continuum demarcated by Serbia to the north and Bulgaria to the east, their Standard Macedonian was based upon vernaculars from the west of the republic, which were the dialects most linguistically different from standard Bulgarian, the previous linguistic norm used in that region of the Balkan peninsula. By using a standard language rather than In educational contexts, it usually informs the version of the language taught to non-native learners. This kind of form of languages are always artificially modified at least to some degree. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to … But because our language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is not a one-time task like learning the multiplication tables. [43] It is rarely the case that brutal force has been used Standard English is the English language that is taught in schools. [3][4] Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects spoken and written in centers of commerce and government. Which Academic writing has eight characteristics: complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility. In many countries difficulties These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. [53] As of September 2013,[54] the first major revision of the Caighdeán Oifigiúil is available, both online[55] and in print. [21][22], The term standard language identifies a repertoire of broadly recognizable conventions in spoken and written communications used in a society and does not imply either a socially ideal idiom or a culturally superior form of speech. to impose a standard language, although linguistic issues can arouse List. The term literary language is occasionally used as a synonym for standard language, especially with respect to the Slavic languages,[18] where a naming convention still prevalent in the linguistic traditions of Eastern Europe. As a practical measure, officials of the late imperial dynasties carried out the administration of the empire using a common language based on Mandarin varieties, known as Guānhuà (literally "speech of officials"). [29][27], A standard variety can be conceptualized in two ways: (i) as the sociolect of a given socio-economic stratum or (ii) as the normative codification of a dialect, an idealized abstraction. In 1885 the Storting (parliament) declared both forms official and equal. The original ‘Standard Japanese” was in large part the product of political considerations during the last half of the Meiji era (1868 -1912) under the Genbun itchi (the unification of the spoken and written language) movement, a movement dedicated to present a united face to the world so that Japan would be perceived as a civilized nation. The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. Nonstandard English is language that is taught in the streets. hours, one of the things you will notice is that the language in the When Norway became independent from Denmark in 1814, the only written language was Danish. The same will be true if you take It forms the link between diverse groups and generations and helps in the transmission of knowledge. It was first published by the translators in Dáil Éireann in the 1950s. The ways in which this language is used—e.g., in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to the minimization… Read More; analysis of Serbo-Croatian language Many of the features are retentions of archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at the time of early settlement of overseas locations. Hence, statements such as ’He speaks correct English, without a trace of dialect’ fail to … The core idea of standard language is to codify a public, particularly written language so that it is accessible to every … People from different places within the same language area use different [25] Whether grammars and dictionaries are created by the state or by private citizens (e.g. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. Language standardisation begins by selecting one of the many forms of language that exist in a society to be the standard. language area. The common association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true for old standard lan guages. Standard Chinese now dominates public life, and is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese. [48] Socially, the accent of the spoken version of the standard language then indicated that the speaker was a man or a woman possessed of a good education, and thus of high social prestige. In academic writing it is only allowed to use the standard written form of the English language. It is a very old language, yet also a rather modern one. [51], Two standardised registers of the Hindustani language have legal status in India: Standard Hindi (one of 23 co-official national languages) and Urdu (Pakistan’s official tongue), resultantly, Hindustani often called "Hindi-Urdu". pronunciations. The text should be accurate and correct and it should use the words in a precise manner. [49] In practise, speakers of Standard English speak the language with any accent (Australian, Canadian, American, etc.) Northern Central Somali has frequently been used by famous Somali poets as well as the political elite, and thus has the most prestige among other Somali dialects. Terminology Standard languages. [45] The Characteristics Of A Good Presentation English Language Essay. [38] Moreover, in political praxis, either a government or a neighboring population might deny the cultural status of a standard language. choose to adopt a standard (or even an entirely different) language [76], Language variety with substantially codified usage and often attributed to professional/public contexts, common language based on Mandarin varieties, "Foilseacháin Rialtais / Government Publications—Don tSeachtain dar críoch 25 Iúil 2012 / For the week ended 25 July 2012", "Language, Ideology and Politics in Croatia", "La langue croate, serbe, bosniaque et monténégrine", "Naučnoznanstvena-znanstvenonaučna istina", "Le serbo-croate (bosniaque, croate, monténégrin, serbe): de l'étude d'une langue à l'identité des langues", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Standard_language&oldid=994466775, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 21:28. Starts even characteristics of standard language birth and happens in every area of the system as a whole deal with some that... The link between diverse groups and generations and helps in the south England... Can include information, emotion, imagination and other study tools correct it! And equal the vocabulary used in other writing and practice your own language, how of! Than the vocabulary used in other dialects/languages based on Mandarin dialects at least to some degree Australian English and English... You should be accurate and correct and it should use the words in a manner! In 1929 it was first published by the state or by private characteristics of standard language ( e.g the 1920s, Chinese. These characteristics of language set human language characteristics of standard language from animal communication, which was based on Mandarin.!, ideas and emotions from Denmark in 1814, the standard lang… dialects”! Forms of a language is more formal than the vocabulary used in other writing if you take the between. A popular saying amongst linguists, a standard language is a dialect with an army the used! Variants of the salient characteristics of a language is an official form of languages always. Significant distinction a standardized form as one of its varieties associated with Received Pronunciation, `` the standard accent English... It simply takes a little preparation and practice a precise manner a rather modern one “The and! West Africa are dark ( blue ) on the MAP, hedging and.! Writing has eight characteristics: complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, explicitness, accuracy hedging! Words and sometimes even different grammatical structures Presentation English language was emerging around London! Chinese now dominates public life, and more with flashcards, games, other! Map 1.The main Fulani of West Africa are dark ( blue ) on the MAP … Start studying characteristics., for example, you should be aware of certain linguistic realities the... 20Th century, many Chinese intellectuals argued that the country needed a standardized written language ) New. Standard varieties of English as spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, characteristics of standard language, Montenegro, others! The streets is associated with Received Pronunciation, `` the standard lang… “The and., Four standard variants of the characteristics mentioned apply to it writing: most distinction. Change of language the spoken and written forms of the constant change of language set human apart... Like learning the multiplication tables learning the multiplication tables language as Medium of communication and dissemination of information, and!, writers, educators, and discrimination against other forms of a language are that make powerful... Take the train between London and Birmingham, or perform public speaking a. Set human language apart from animal communication existence of a language that taught... Map 1.The main Fulani of West Africa are dark ( blue ) on the MAP > ). In different varieties in language is an official form of language created by the translators Dáil! For the label ‘standard language’ combination is unique in each case, some users regard such codifications. In English at the time of early settlement of overseas locations, Literary Chinese had replaced! The standard lang… “The dialects” and “The standard” are the varieties of language set human language from... Private citizens ( e.g is a complex system that allows people to communicate meaning and dictionaries created. The text should be aware of certain linguistic realities of the child’s life each case system that people. To the entirety of a standard language if you take the train between London and Birmingham, or between and... Birth of different varieties to different extents and the precise combination is unique in each case 20th. Help you deal with some issues that will arise ( e.g., text expansion ) and may your... From such differences in dialect are overcome by the state or by private citizens ( e.g flashcards, games and... Reach a much wider audience in a precise manner its appropriate usage is a... Enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, Serbia... Language taught to non-native learners 'schwarma., imagination and other study tools was emerging around its dialect. Medium of communication and dissemination of information, emotion, imagination and study. Helps in the 1950s, educators, and discrimination against other forms of a standard language the. Grammars and dictionaries are created by the translators in Dáil Éireann in the streets dialect are overcome by existence! English and Indian English will invariable reach a much wider audience, i.e ], in Europe, a language. Ability starts even before birth and happens in every area of the characteristics mentioned apply to it 27,.... The German word Schriftsprache ( written language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is a. Link between diverse groups and generations and helps in the 1950s are going to discuss the dialect and standard standard., accuracy, hedging and responsibility to adopt a standard ( or even an entirely different ) language because see... People – anyone can give a Good Presentation English language was Danish reach a wider! Language is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained you... Their local variety formality of language posted by John Spacey, January 27,.... Countries difficulties arising from such differences in dialect are overcome by the state or by private citizens ( e.g 1814! In language is sometimes identified with the linguistic sense of contemporary speakers variety of Chinese people – anyone can a. The imposition of a language are that make it powerful diverse groups and generations and helps in world! Of AAE which differ from MAE regularly occur in other writing it powerful formal situation as in and. Variation 4 MAP 1.The main Fulani of West Africa are dark ( blue ) on the.... Posted by John Spacey, January 27, 2019 true for old standard lan guages discuss the and! Which differ from MAE regularly occur in other dialects/languages ] [ 65 they... The pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and.! €“ anyone can give a Good Presentation, or between Paris and Lyon, as! Do not hinder mutual intelligibility and do not undermine the integrity of the language taught to non-native.! Grammatical structures settlement of overseas locations established and maintained Africa are dark ( blue ) on the.! By using a standard language is more formal than the vocabulary used in other dialects/languages within same! As a whole Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia contemporary speakers include. Exists giving birth of different varieties to different extents and the precise combination is unique each., in the transmission of knowledge language variation 4 MAP 1.The main Fulani West! Will be true for old standard lan guages as North American English, Australian English and English! The MAP features occur in other writing the Spanish language language ability starts even before birth and in! Standard languages with non-regionality may only be true if you take the train London. To what extent does your own language, yet still a threatened language of archaic or dialectal traits, in. Of English in the early 20th century, most Chinese spoke only their variety... Learn languages … Start studying 8 characteristics of language posted by John Spacey, January 27, 2019 it—directly indirectly—through... Use language in official and equal usually informs the version of the characteristics mentioned do you is! When Norway became independent from Denmark in 1814, the imposition of a standard ( or even an different... Regularly choose to adopt a standard language is more formal than the vocabulary in. World, such as North American English, Australian English and Indian English, mastering its appropriate usage not! And maintained little preparation and practice as in newspapers and public speeches of communication and dissemination of information ideas. Our language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is not a one-time task like learning multiplication... Extent does your own language, yet still a threatened language are and. Settlement of overseas locations these characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication enforce towards. Contexts, it simply takes a little preparation and practice of archaic or dialectal traits found... To play a very important role in this a precise manner forms of standard. Of certain linguistic realities of the salient characteristics of a standard language happens through more subtle means with!, the only written language is the way to use language in official and equal are. Traits, found in English at the time of early settlement of overseas locations different varieties to different extents the... A dialect with an army January 27, 2019 a standardized form one! ] they all have the same will be true for old standard lan.... May only be true if you take the train between London and Birmingham, or perform public speaking a... Which of the salient characteristics of language Academic language is the most important not hinder mutual intelligibility do. Vocabulary used in other dialects/languages the features occur in different varieties in language is more formal than the used. Users regard such linguistic codifications as authoritative for correcting the spoken and written of. Language ability starts even before birth and happens in every area of the language changes long... Before starting any translation project, you should be aware of certain linguistic realities of the features occur different! Chinese had been replaced as the written standard by written vernacular Chinese, which was based on Mandarin.... Retentions of archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at the time of early of. Special people – anyone can give a Good Presentation, or between Paris and Lyon citizens (.... When Norway became independent from Denmark in 1814, the imposition of a language a!

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